What is Wind Turbine? What are the Wind Turbine Components?
Propeller Wings: Most windsocks have 2 or 3 propeller blades. The wind blowing on the wings lifts the wings and turns them. In a modern 600 kW wind turbine, the length of each propeller blade is 20 meters long and is designed like an airplane wing.
Tower: It provides the propeller and motor section to work at a safe height from the ground. The tower carries nacelle and rotor in wind turbines. The towers are generally constructed as tubular steel, truss or reinforced concrete. Rope supported mast type towers are generally used in small turbine applications.
The tubular tower shape is the most preferred tower shape. Their main advantage is that their costs are low. A tube tower of similar size has almost half the cost of materials and construction. Many small turbines are constructed using rope-supported mast type towers. Its biggest advantage is that its weight is very low and its costs are very low. The disadvantages are the difficulty of installing on the land and preventing the use of agricultural areas.
Brake system: An effective braking system is required for the safe operation of wind turbines. There are two independent systems in wind turbines; Pitch-Stall control and Mechanical brake system. Both have the feature of breaking the mains connection when the speed limit is exceeded and making the turbines safe in other emergencies.
Generator System: Wind turbine generators convert mechanical energy to electrical energy according to the induction principle. Wind turbine generators are slightly different than other types of generators. One of the reasons for this is that the generator works together with an oscillating wind turbine rotor.
Three different generators are used in wind turbines: “Direct Current Generators, Synchronous Generators and Asynchronous Generators”.
Wind Meter (Anemometer): It measures the wind speed and ensures that it is transmitted to the control unit.
High Speed Shaft (Shaft): The generator of the wind turbine drives.
Low Speed Shaft: It enables low speeds to be created by the rotor at 30-60 rotations per minute.
Yaw Drive: Wind turbines working against the wind must work dull in the direction of the wind. The deflection driver ensures that the rotor is constantly dull to the wind, according to changes in the direction of the wind.
Yaw Engine: Provides power to the drift driver.
Machinery Division (Nacelle): The machine section stands on top of the wind turbine tower and contains the gearbox, low and high speed shafts, generator, control unit and brake. Some of the turbines of the machine parts are made wide enough to land the helicopter.
Gear Box (Gear Box, Gear Box): The gears connect the low speed spindle to the high speed spindle at a speed of 30-60 rpm rpm. 1000-1800 to RPM (to the rotational speed required to generate electricity). The gearbox is heavy and expensive equipment. For this reason, researches are being made on generator technologies that can produce electrical energy at low speeds with direct driving without the need for a gearbox.
Rotor: In wind turbines, the part between the propeller blades and hub is called a rotor.
Minute hand: It measures the direction of the wind and transmits this information to the drift driver. Thus, the wind turbine is provided to turn towards the wind.
Control unit: The control unit stops or activates the system according to changes in wind speed and turbine cut-in and cut-out values. Modern wind turbines have cut-in speeds of 2-4 m / s, nominal speeds of 10-15 m / s and cut out speeds of 25-35 m / s.